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U.S. Forest Products-Annual Market Review 2015-2021

The market for forest products in the U.S. is healthy, but for how long? Global macroeconomic pressures are inflicting inflationary pains on everything from wood pallets to essential household items, and the forest products business is no different. Since early 2020, the COVID pandemic’s lock down and public health and safety measures nearly ground the world’s economy to a standstill. Today, we’re still coming out of hibernation, so to speak, but there’s plenty of room for optimism too.

Forest products have weathered the pandemic and subsequent lock downs relatively well. That does not mean serious challenges remain, yet the overall outlook has a positive trajectory. With those considerations in mind, here’s a breakdown of the most critical takeaways from the latest report U.S. Forest Products Annual Market Review and Prospects, 2015-2021.

Purpose of the Annual Market Review

The annual market review aims to build a holistic analysis of the forest products industry, including a breakdown of each market segment, such as sawn softwood and sawn hardwood. The report also outlines the developments that are shaping forest product consumption. The booming housing market is a prime example, as demand for raw lumber and building supplies remains historically high.

There’s even a brief mention of how biomass energy dovetails with the federal government’s emphasis on sustainability and climate change. Altogether, each of these factors forms a comprehensive picture of the U.S. forest products industry. The author of the review, Delton Alderman, has included everything that may affect the business moving forward over the next five years or so.

Current State of the Forest Products Market

Interestingly, the report’s bottom line is this: The table end of the covid-19 pandemic is still influencing the U.S. economy at large, and the forest products market business is no different. Specifically, the review identifies the most significant contributors to the disruption as the waning global demand for wood products, geopolitical events, and the trade disputes that have been ongoing for several years.

But according to the report’s author, a healthy U.S. housing market should be a boon to the forest products industry as home prices continue to rise along with a lack of available homes for sale, including new home construction that simply can’t keep pace with consumer demand. That’s a high-level look at the report, so let’s drill down into little bits of information and data that go into the review.

Information and Data in Annual Market Review

The report’s author builds out the review by looking into information and stats that focus on forest products. The study delves into consumption, trade, prices, credit, production, and the aforementioned macroeconomic effects. The review categorizes each market segment. The downside is that the nomenclature used by the author may be different from the terminology you use internally within your company or industry. Additionally, there is also data on product prices, international trade, domestic markets, and policy initiatives.

When is the Annual Market Review released?

Published in conjunction with the United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Products Annual Market Review and Prospects, 2021-2025 comes out every year. The overriding difference this year is the depth and significance of the disruptions triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, the report looks at the market in its entirety instead of focusing on a single sub-sector.

The time frame in question may differ from report to report as economic conditions dictate how far into the future industry leaders should look for near-term trends. This time, the report outlines what the industry may soon face from 2021 to 2025. It’s the minimum amount of time necessary for a proper statistical analysis that seeks to forecast trends in juxtaposition with past data. From that point onward, the review breaks down the statistics and greatest influences for each category of forest products.

Forest product categories in the report

According to the report’s definition of forest products, the U.S. market can be broken down into several categories:

  • Timber products production, trade, and consumption
  • Sawn softwood
  • Softwood log trade
  • Sawn hardwood
  • Hardwood log trade
  • Pulpwood
  • Furniture
  • Structural panels
  • Engineered wood products
  • Hardwood plywood
  • Particle board and medium density fiberboard
  • Hardboard
  • Insulation board
  • Fuelwood

Additionally, the author explains the impact of economic conditions on each market segment. By taking this approach, the report can give a 360-degree view of the forest products industry and where it may turn in the future. Business leaders need an accurate portrayal of the industry to make investments and plan for successes – or further economic disruption due to factors beyond their control (i.e., rising inflation).

Currently, we are still in the nascent stages of a recovery from COVID-19, which most likely will affect the industry’s trajectory over the near term. And countries are facing headwinds from the invasion of Ukraine and the subsequent recessionary environment.

Some segments will feel the impact more than others. The purpose of the review is to provide a starting range on how these forces will affect those markets. Without these insights, industry-leading companies would have a much harder time getting a snapshot of the market and whether or not the exacerbating factors are beyond their control.

Take some time to review the report, which can be found at the link above, and see how the economic conditions may factor into your strategic decision making.

 

Sustainable Logging Practices

Sustainable Logging Practices

For some people, the words “sustainable” and “logging” simply do not go together. Historical logging practices were sometimes hard on forests and disrupted native ecosystems. Today, sustainable forestry practices that include logging and harvesting trees comfortably co-exists with the conservation of thriving forests.

Sustainable Logging:  The Beginning

Historical logging practices began with the axe, manual saw, and manpower. They were transformed by the introduction of powered machines. At first, as volumes of timber increased exponentially with these new capabilities, the harvesting practices remained tied to traditional practices for some time. The practice disrupted wildlife, native plant species, and the enjoyment of wild areas.

While clearcutting is still practiced today, it is more controlled and meant to optimize renewal growth.

As environmental and climate awareness began to rise, bitter confrontations with the logging industry became far too common.

In 1972, the U.S. embarked on a new path. With the passage of the Clean Water Act, environmental policies were written into law across the nation. Local, state, and federal regulations emphasized healthy forests and responsible management.

But logging couldn’t simply stop. The industry supplied, and continues to supply, much-needed timber and other forest products to consumers around the world. The harvesting of forest products provided the economic foundation for communities across the country.

Reconciling those competing needs resulted in the birth of sustainable logging practices. Old-style clear-cutting both destroyed forests and ended the economic viability of the land. Sustainable practices allow both to flourish.

Sustainable logging practices benefit everyone, from the employees of logging companies to the campers enjoying a weekend in the woods.

Sustainable forestry even has the potential to help mitigate climate change.

Sustainable Logging Overview

The main principle of sustainable logging is to balance the economic importance of forest products with the ecological importance of healthy forests. This requires a comprehensive strategy for every potential logging site.

One way to approach sustainability is to design harvesting to mirror the effects of nature. Forests are altered by wind, fire, flood, and other natural events. Trees die and are replaced in forests with no human intervention.

Sustainable forestry also depends on choosing harvesting sites wisely. Old growth forests that are not normally harvested commercially should be left alone, preserving ecosystems and habitats that have flourished in place.

For land with a history of logging, sustainable logging begins with foresters learning as much as possible about the natural patterns and existing conditions of each tract of trees.

Sustainable Logging Practices

No two tracts of land will be logged in exactly the same manner. Sustainable logging brings together a team of experts who compile a comprehensive analysis of the area. Biologists, geologists, ecologists, and more lend their expertise to each project.

Each project has its own profile. But similar sustainable logging practices are adapted for sites across the country and, increasingly, around the world.

Patchwork Logging

While a company used to clear-cut an entire forest, sustainable logging is far more targeted and precise.

Harvesting trees from a small area allows the surrounding forest to adapt to the clearing like it would to a natural event. Keeping harvested areas far enough apart maintains habitat and biodiversity.

Tree type and growth, soil conditions, and other factors determine how many trees can be harvested from an individual area. In places where fire or damaging storms are common, the overall environment may be able to regenerate a larger area.

Patchwork logging leaves trees within a harvested area to better mimic natural conditions. It also allows for the preservation of tree species that are endangered or play an oversized role in ecosystem balance.

Sustainable logging is done in cycles. Some models propose that a cycle be no shorter than 80 years. This allows the forest to recover and continuously produce harvestable trees.

Areas that have been harvested are planted with saplings. The emergence of wild grasses attracts wildlife to the clearing, and the ecosystem evolves and grows.

Selective Harvesting

Selective harvesting removes individual trees, thinning the forest to allow existing smaller trees more space and light to grow. This type of sustainable logging is especially beneficial in tropical areas that don’t have natural events that mimic areas of clear-cutting.

Selective harvesting preserves undergrowth. This helps prevent soil erosion and maintain the health of the larger ecosystem.

Both patchwork and selective sustainable logging use fewer and smaller roads and less equipment, reducing damage to the surrounding forest. Careful attention is paid to the protection of unharvested trees.

Other Benefits of Sustainable Logging

Sustainable logging offers additional environmental benefits. Harvested trees and areas are kept well away from waterways to minimize erosion and runoff. Sufficient space is left between harvested areas to provide an uninterrupted habitat for wildlife.

Sustainable logging also provides a safer working environment. Fewer people and less equipment in each area help reduce the chance of accidents.

Sustainable Logging:  Forest Management and Climate Change

Sustainable logging can play a major role in forest management. An unlogged forest is not necessarily a healthy forest. The work that goes into profiling a forest or tract of trees before harvesting provides valuable information.

That information includes soil, geography, and tree health analysis. Invasive species are documented, as are biodiversity, wildlife habitat and density, erosion, and any disease or damage present in the area.

Logging is sometimes the first step in returning a forest to good health. Removing diseased, damaged, or low-quality trees helps the higher quality trees grow. This is called an improvement harvest.

The branches and other wood left behind by this careful removal provides wildlife habitat while it decays and enriches the soil. Removing invasive trees, vines, and other plants provides better conditions for the remaining trees.

Sustainable logging practices are used and adapted by forest managers to improve the overall health of their woodlands, even if no trees are harvested for lumber.

Sustainable forestry is also becoming the focus of climate action. Sustainable logging can result in more trees as well as healthier trees able to capture more carbon.

Tropical forests are an area of particular interest for climate action. 1.5 million square miles of tropical forest are currently being selectively logged. Widespread adoption of selective harvesting practices would allow these forests to maintain much of their carbon stores and biodiversity while continuing to anchor economies.

Sustainable logging practices combine common sense, careful study, and new technologies to improve the health of forests around the world. At the same time, they provide economic stability for many communities and meet the continuing demand for lumber and other forest-based products.

 

Hearne Hardwooods web homepage

Wood on the Web: Hearne Hardwoods

It’s time for the Nature’s Packaging – Wood on the Web series. In these posts, we explore interesting and unique web resources all about wood. In this blog post we look at Hearne Hardwoods, a specialty lumber yard with some very unique offerings.

Have you ever seen a beautiful piece of wood furniture and said to yourself, ‘Wow! Look at that beautiful wood grain. Where do they find pieces like that’?

Well, in some cases they find those beautiful pieces of wood at Hearne Hardwoods.

Hearne Hardwooods web homepage

About Hearne Hardwoods

Hearne Hardwoods Inc. was started in 1997 by Rick and Pat Hearne as a small, family-owned, specialty hardwood lumber company located in Oxford Pennsylvania on a historic 18th century homestead. From their simple beginning, the family grew it from a four person company with eight thousand square foot of usable space to a thriving business with eighteen employees and over fifty thousand square feet of manufacturing, storage, and a marvelous showroom. As the company has grown, so has their ability to provide unique wood products for new markets. Originally they were strictly a raw material yard providing exotic woods from around the world. Now, they have “branched” out to include manufacturing musical instrument blanks and this side of their business has grown significantly.

Hearne hardwoods strives to offer selections of some of the world’s most unique and gorgeous wood pieces from sustainably managed forests delivered to customers in a friendly, welcoming manner. All Hearne Hardwoods customers are treated with respect and warmth. The staff onsite are very knowledgeable about their inventory and are ready to help every customer with their project, big or small.

Today, Rick Hearne and his son, Brian, travel across the globe in search of the wonderful treasures of nature that inspire woodworkers and instill a sense of awe in their customers.

Hearne Hardwood Products

Hearne offers several different categories of products:

  • Raw lumber – rough sawn, random width and length with wide selection of species from Apple to Ziricote.

  • Live edge slabs – most kiln dried, some air dried. Sawn and sold as flitches (sawn from a single log and sold together). Available bookmatched.

  • Tonewoods – high quality guitar and ukele parts.

  • Lumber piles – basically means what it says. Raw materials sold as a unit.

  • Burls and Blocks – these are used for inlays, furniture pieces, gun stocks, turned pieces, etc.

  • Veneers – used to cover large areas. Great for paneling, doors, and cabinets.

  • Hardwood flooring – custom made to fit your personal style and taste.

  • You Name It! – unique pieces ideal for art, sculpture, and table bases.

Sustainability

Sustainable forest management is vital to preserving forests in general and especially when dealing with unique and exotic hardwoods from around the world. Hearne Hardwoods is pledged to procure forest products from legal sources who practice sustainable forest management.

They have invested in a rosewood plantation based in Central America that includes a nursery and a sawmill. They are committed to building a renewable resource that benefits the local populace as well. The plantations are diversified ecosystems of indigenous trees and plants that allow the local communities to prosper from the land. They have also mahogany, cedar, avocado, mango, and orange trees within the tracks of the plantation.

As part of sustainable management, the trees initially grow among corn stalks and when they grow tall enough they will provide shade for organic coffee bushes.

Another part of their commitment to sustainable management and renewable the resources is their project to replant fifteen saplings for every tree harvested. The trees are GPS tagged in a forest management plan and their positions are provided to the local government for tracking and so that future members of the community are aware of the resources and can take part in their growth and harvesting.

 

A city park with trees

Urban Forest Wood-An Innovative Look at Recycling

What happens when urban trees reach their end of life?

Urban trees are one of those remarkable stories that largely flies under the radar. We appreciate how a large canopy can shield us from the intense summer sun or help keep us dry during an unexpected downpour, but most of the time, we take them for granted. We shouldn’t.

According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, urban trees offer a wealth of benefits. Did you know that a mature tree can absorb up to 150 kg of CO2 per year? Aside from sequestering carbon and creating biodiversity, trees help filter pollutants and fine particulates. They also reduce energy requirements for air conditioning and heating when strategically placed.

Research has found that trees aid city dwellers’ physical and mental health and their presence even boosts real estate value. But for urban trees, the story hasn’t always had a happy ending. At the end of life, too often, they have ended up in the waste stream, chipped or burnt, a low repayment for many decades of civic service. The rise of the urban wood movement, however, offers a more promising path.

The sustainability case for upcycling harvested urban wood is compelling. Approximately 3.8 billion board feet of urban wood harvested annually from U.S. cities could be processed into lumber – not counting fire salvage or orchard rescue trees. Utilizing just 10% of that urban wood harvest currently chipped or left to rot would have an equivalent impact on removing 732,000 cars from the street.

The urban wood movement has been growing in recent decades as people have increasingly recognized the value of harvested city trees that had long been underutilized. One of those many stories is told by Jennifer Alger, Director of the Urban Wood Network Western Region, a not-for-profit organization.

She grew up, she said, riding in her dad’s truck as he scoured neighborhoods looking for trees that needed to be taken down. He had been a contract logger by summer and a burl buyer for a firearms manufacturer in winter.

But when the logging business bottomed in the early 1980s, “I spent my childhood in a vehicle with Dad buying these random dead or dying trees from people’s houses,” she recalled. And so he was doing urban lumber before the term ‘urban lumber’ was even coined. At that time, they were cutting for firewood and cellophane wrapping bundles of it for retailers.

Her father recognized the value of timber from the wood world, and it pained him to be cutting perfectly good lengths of material into firewood.  “Why are we cutting these logs into firewood?”, he asked Jennifer, “These logs are gorgeous”.

They began setting aside the best logs and stockpiled them. Finally, they bought their first portable band sawmill in the 1990s, allowing them to mill lumber. Similar stories are told around the country by other companies and participants who recognize the value of harvesting urban wood.

Like others in the urban wood recovery business, Jennifer found a knowledge void regarding its potential value. With that thought in mind, she began networking informally in the early 2000s with the help of CalFire and the United States Forest Service to reach out to arborists and other stakeholders about more sustainable outcomes for urban trees. “We were importing all these hardwoods from either the East Coast or from overseas and here in California, we were spending hours on chipping them, burning, or landfilling – all of these scenarios,” she recalled.

One of the myths that needed to be overcome was that urban trees would be too expensive to mill because of embedded steel objects.” Everybody told me that it costs too much to mill these urban trees because they have nails in them, and so it’s just going to be too costly.” She responded that they were already milling urban trees at her company, and with the value of a blade only $17 or $20, “not that big of a deal.”

In 2016, Urban, Salvaged, & Reclaimed Woods Inc., a West Coast non-profit network was incorporated. In networking with other groups around the country, however, group members discovered that different regions had slightly different perspectives about urban wood. For example, some regional networks included reclaimed lumber from deconstruction, while others included only urban trees.

“The urban wood movement is big and it’s catching on worldwide,” Jennifer said. “But we recognized that we were fragmented.” That fragmentation was standing in the way of building a stronger industry. Collectively, the urban wood communities recognized the need to rebrand, as well as to create standards and certification programs that would help build consumer trust and shield customers from poor quality suppliers.

After much discussion with each of the networks around the country, it was determined that we would unite under the Urban Wood Network with the previous West Coast group becoming the Urban Wood Network Western Region. As a result of that collaboration, urban wood can be described as:

“Any wood that was not harvested for its timber value and was diverted from or removed from the waste-stream and developed or redeveloped into a product. Urban wood can come from three sources: Deconstruction, fresh-cut urban trees, & salvaged wood.”

The group is working towards several initiatives to increase the professionalism of the industry, including the establishment of lumber grades specific to urban timber and chain of custody certification program.

Jennifer is currently working with an expert team of developers and customer experience specialists on the build-out of AncesTREE™ an Inventory Management System and enterprise application that will allow users to easily adhere to the industry standards, track the chain-of-custody, manage their inventory, and generally better manage and grow their urban lumber businesses.

An integrated approach is increasingly being sought, involving cities, municipalities, and large corporate or educational campuses. Attention to pruning and tree care with eventual salvage in mind can boost the marketable value of timber.

The establishment of urban forest management plans and policies can make an important difference for the industry going forward. The establishment of policies will make the urban wood industry less vulnerable to the loss of key urban wood supporters in key decision-making roles.

There are several forces at play that are helping drive the urban wood movement. On one hand, there are increasing restrictions regarding the landfilling of wood waste. On the other hand, people recognize the substantial benefits of using urban wood. With its beautifully unique appearance, it creates one-of-a-kind home products, while supporting local businesses. Using local urban wood also is a celebration of local history, while playing a part in diverting waste and sequestering carbon.

These days, many individuals and organizations are helping to script a more sustainable end of life scenario for urban trees through solid wood recovery. “By networking together, we can build awareness that brings these trees back into the social and economic lives of the communities they came from in the form of lumber, slabs, flooring, siding, furniture, art, architecture and other value-added wood products,” the Urban Wood Network states at its website.

For her part, Jennifer believes that the groundwork the Urban Wood Network is creating today will set the stage for the growth of the urban wood movement and a more sustainable outcome for city trees. Through its focus on education, standards, and promotional assistance, she sees a bright future. “We expect in the next two to five years an absolute explosion of the urban network and its membership,” she concluded.

Talking to the Source: Conversation with a Lumber Broker

Lumber yard with forklift carrying a random length load

For this blog, Nature’s Packaging reached out to a lumber wholesaler based out of Canada within the Quebec province. The company supplies products to the wooden pallet industry as well as the fence industry. 

NP: What does a lumber broker do?

A good lumber broker offers value added to the product: when a mill is down, he should be able to ship from another mill. He can also offer different alternatives such as softwood, aspen, hardwood as well as different grades and dimensions. Most mills are specialized and limited to a certain number of dimensions and species.

By talking to customers in many states and areas, and talking to mills in different areas, the broker has a broad view of what is happening in the market. From the log situation to demand, the broker has a global understanding to share.

Good brokers have a diversified team communicating with hundreds of customers and many suppliers. Different personalities, different contacts, different experiences bring a wider range of perspectives.

Can you tell us what you do on a daily basis?

Our team talks to mills every day. We visit them on a regular basis. We are involved when it is time to look at new equipment so the production meets the customer’s requirements.

We also listen to our customers to match their needs with the mill’s capacity. Our participation in different associations keeps us well informed of the legal changes, the technological improvements, and allows us to network with equipment suppliers and help the mills and customers.

Industrial or lower grade lumber isn’t worth as much as premium grades. Why is it important to the overall lumber market, and particularly for wood pallet and packaging manufacturers?

The mills need to make money. Some cut higher grade logs and produce grade lumber. Some scrag mills produce only pallet grade lumber. SPF and SYP mills produce commodities that represent 80% of their products but the pallet lumber prices can make the difference between a good year and not making it.

It is important to be aware of what is going on in the higher-grade markets because they are directly affecting industrial lumber prices. When premium, #1 & #2 and stud prices are as high as they are today, it forces the builder to use #3 grade that is usually going to the Industrial markets, making availability and prices shift very quickly.

What about logistics and transportation management? Why is this area important to lumber supply?

Customers want “just in time”, they do not want inventories and mills needs cashflow. So scheduling the production, then the shipments to meet customer’s needs is an everyday challenge. Freight costs and availability change with demand and fuel costs.

Respecting the truckers and nurturing good relationships with them is as important as paying fast. Good people, good software, and great relationships are key ingredients to a high-quality logistics program.

The price of lumber has been particularly volatile, lately. What types of events cause such price movement, and what can you, as a lumber supplier, do to help buyers through such times?

COVID has changed our lives. Instead of traveling, we work from home, we cook more, we are building a new fence, a new deck, painting the house, building a shed…so that our “cocoon” is better and we keep busy!

Pallets move the world so your paint comes on a pallet, the screws, and nails for the deck and fence as well as many renovation products. Demand for lumber went up just as many mills were missing workers because of COVID.

Our job has been to work with our customers at trying other species and dimension, changing the ratios of 3 ½’’ vs 5 ½’’ to have a better supply. I cannot share all of our secrets but we have been supplying lumber solutions to many customers.

What are some of the biggest mistakes that customers make when it comes to lumber buying?

Some do not know what their actual cutting costs are and what their waste factor when cutting their own wood. When comparing to pre-cut lumber we can see that price is important, but the waste factor is part of the costs too.

Buying the lowest bidder can be dangerous. It is better to spread a bit and have more diversified sources. Working with a supplier when a problem happens is better than rejecting the load and leaving the other to deal with the problem.

If you could give lumber buyers one or two key takeaways from this interview, what would it be?

Suppliers are as important as customers. I can have all the customers but if I do not have the lumber, I am useless. If I have all the lumber and all the customers, I still need the truckers and they need to be treated with respect too.

Finally, a good broker must be competitive but is not always the cheapest. The team of professionals provides market information, is there to find lumber solutions for you, to bring various mills, species, dimensions, and grades so you can provide the shipping platform solutions your customers need.

2 Types of Recycled Pallets for Export

2 Types of Recycled Pallets for Export

The sustainable standards of ISPM 15 regulations apply to recycled wood pallets and prevent them from spreading wood boring insects across international borders. These standards help ensure recycled wood pallet and crate companies do their part to protect the environment. ISPM 15 separated recycled pallets into two categories: repaired and remanufactured.

It’s Like Buying a Used Car

When a pallet company buys broken, heat treated, recycled pallets from their customer, most of the pallets require some repair. The pallet company brings the recycled pallets to their facility to sort through them. They fix the repairable pallets and salvage the others for parts.

Photograph by Wikimedia, distributed under a CC-BY 2.0 license

Photograph by Wikimedia, distributed under a CC-BY 2.0 license.

Buying used pallets is like buying a used car. You could buy a reliable used car that might have had the transmission, radiator, or other parts replaced and it will still be safe and effective to drive. It’s the same car it always has been; it’s simply had a part or two replaced. In the same way, replacing the bad parts of a pallet extends the life of the pallet. ISPM 15 has two categories for recycled pallets. The first category is repaired pallets, referred to in section 4.3.2 of ISPM 15.

Repaired pallets have had up to one-third of the components replaced. This is like the new car that had its radiator replaced. Everything is still new except for that one part. However, once a pallet reaches the end of its life, it’s dismantled and the usable boards are stacked and separated for re-use on other pallets. The unusable boards are recycled into products like wood chips or sawdust for different industries.

It’s possible to make a pallet entirely from recycled boards. If a pallet has had more than one-third of its boards replaced, then ISPM 15 considers it remanufactured, referred to in section 4.3.3 of ISPM 15. This is like the car that has had its engine, transmission, and radiator replaced with parts (new or used) all sourced from different places. When a remanufactured pallet has been repaired with lumber sourced from different locations, separate rules apply. Processes need to be followed to ensure that pallet is ISPM 15 compliant and won’t spread wood-boring pests from one country to another.

Stamping for Export

The governing agency for each ISPM 15 participating country distributes a unique number to be assigned to a stamp. Each company that participates in the ISPM 15 program must clearly stamp each heat treated wood product that leaves their facility with their number. That way, the source of each wood product can be traced in case there’s a problem. Depending on the pallet’s origin, a used pallet can sometimes have more than one stamp on it to certify heat treatment. In the United States, it’s required that all previous stamps be obliterated before a pallet is heat treated. Only then can a new stamp be applied.

The language of ISPM 15 is used as a minimum requirement for all countries that participate. The agency that oversees ISPM 15 in each country has the authority to include additional standards. Put differently, the rules that apply to businesses in Canada are different than the rules that apply to businesses in the United States. The agency that oversees the Canadian ISPM 15 program is the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. In the United States, it’s the American Lumber Standards Committee. Refer to links below for more information.

Resources

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