Tag Archive for: ISPM 15

Forest-Overhead view

ISPM-15 Protects Forest from Harmful Pests

Forest-Overhead view
Photo by Ron Whitaker on Unsplash

Wood packaging such as crates and pallets are critical to international trade, and to the global economy. Consider that almost two billion wood pallets are used daily within the United States to store and transport goods, and that approximately $400 billion worth of American trade is exported each year using wood pallets and containers.

Wooden packaging is often made from recently milled timber, however. As a result, there is the potential for live insects to be transported unknowingly from one part of the world to another, where they can wreak havoc in stands of timber that have evolved without the benefit of natural defenses to hold invading species at bay. According to the U.S. Forest Service, many of the non-native bark- and wood-infesting insects now in the United States are thought to have arrived in untreated wood packaging.

The motivation for the establishment of ISPM-15 followed some high-profile infestations in North America as well as in other parts of the world. Infestations have been caused by Asian Longhorned Beetle, first identified in the United States in 1996, and the Emerald Ash Borer, initially discovered in Canada and the U.S. during the 1990s.

The Asian Longhorned Beetle was first discovered in 1996, where it was found to be attacking ornamental trees in Chicago and New York City. It subsequently was detected across most northeastern states and California. This insect is native to Asia, where it destroys many deciduous tree species, including maples, elms, and poplars. It is believed to have arrived in untreated wooden crates shipped from China.

The Emerald Ash Borer is another destructive insect that has inflicted considerable damage. It is speculated to have arrived in North America in the 1990s in solid wood packaging and was first detected around Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. It has killed millions of ash trees already and still threatens most of the 8.7 billion ash trees located across North America.

With the knowledge that wooden packaging can be a pathway for the international movement of forest pests from one country to another, new international standards under ISPM-15 were established in 2002 and fully implemented in 2006.

ISPM-15 requires that all wood packaging material (WPM) used for international shipments be heat-treated (HT) using conventional kilns or heat treatment chambers, fumigated with methyl bromide (MB) prior to export or treated with dielectric (microwave) heating (DH). All WPM treated to meet ISPM-15 requirements must be marked with a designated ISPM-15 stamp. In Canada, only dielectric heating and heat treatment are allowed. All producers of ISPM-15 stamped products must be approved.

In order to become approved, facilities are inspected and certified. After certification, the supplier is assigned a number and issued a stamp that is applied to wood packaging material to show it is compliant with the ISPM-15 standard. The stamp marking acts as a passport for wood packaging to officially enter ports of entry in foreign countries, and is recognized as sufficient proof that the wood products meet the ISPM-15 standard. There are more than 100 participating countries, worldwide. Lists are available of approved HT agencies and approved MB agencies in the U.S.

The U.S. Forest Service stresses that when properly implemented, ISPM-15 treatments “have been scientifically proven to be highly effective in killing quarantine pests.” In one study, the Nature Conservancy found that the infestation rates of pests in wood packaging decreased by up to 52% between 2003 and 2009, following the implementation of ISPM-15 in 2006.

As NWPCA notes, “Since the wide-scale adoption of ISPM-15 in the United States, there has been a significant reduction in[BG1]  new large-scale establishments of invasive wood-boring insects.”  The full collaboration of the wood packaging industry and plant health organizations in countries around the world has proven to be highly successful in controlling invasive species and thereby ensuring that wood pallets and packaging can continue to safely play their critical role in international commerce.

Talking to the Source: A Conversation with Leigh Greenwood of The Nature Conservancy

*Editor’s note: The viewpoint and statements of the following post may not reflect the views of Nature’s Packaging, however, we are always committed to providing an open forum for all members of the forest and forest products community.

What does your organization do, and why is solid wood packaging an area of interest to it?

The Nature Conservancy is a global nonprofit with a mission to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. This means that we are an organization working around the world to protect all ecosystems from many types of damage- and forests are an incredibly important ecosystem.

Forests face many threats- illegal deforestation, forest fires, drought, attacks by insects and diseases, and more- and unfortunately, solid wood packaging can become a threat to the health of forests when it is infested or contaminated (either in the wood or on the surface of the packaging) with tree-killing insects and diseases.

What is your role? What does your day look like?

I’m the Forest Health Program Director, which means I spend my days working with colleagues and partners all around North America on the issues where I think we can make the greatest difference on the issue of non-native insects and diseases that reduce the health, safety, and beauty of our trees and forests.

Most days, I spend my time emailing and video conferencing with partners on my current focus areas; pests that can be better managed via improved firewood outreach and regulations, and pests that can be transported accidentally as part of the global supply chain.

Why do we need ISPM-15? What has happened in the past to warrant its creation?

Forest pests that infest live trees, like bark beetles and wood-boring beetles, are particularly problematic because they are both very damaging, and easily moved in infested packaging materials. ISPM 15 was created to allow for a set of approved treatments (usually heat treatment, but other listed treatments are acceptable) that render the wood in solid wood packaging functionally very unlikely to contain live pests.

Several types of very damaging insects- most notably the Asian long-horned beetle were being repeatedly transported internationally in infested pallets, which then led to a series of very serious insect infestations in the recipient countries.

ISPM-15 was designed to dramatically decrease the risks of using solid wood packaging so that this important part of the global supply chain could continue to be used around the world without further destruction of forests from these pests.

What is an example of an issue on your radar screen right now from an ISPM-15 perspective?

The ISPM 15 standard relies on the effectiveness of the plant protection organization (PPO) at the pallet’s country of origin to ensure that the treatment and stamp is conducted and applied properly. For instance, if a product is produced, boxed, and palletized in England and then shipped to the USA, it is the responsibility of UK’s Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs to ensure that the treatment is correctly applied, not the responsibility of the receiving entity in the USA.

So the forest pests that I am most concerned about are not particular insects or diseases- but rather I am concerned about the chance of new and potentially very damaging forest pests in pallets originating in countries where the treatments required by ISPM-15 aren’t being adequately or consistently enforced by their PPO. While a given pest might be worrisome, the idea that many different types of pests might be coming in repeatedly from regions with poor enforcement is an even bigger issue in my mind.

What are the most worrisome types of pests- and why are they particularly concerning?

The pests that are accidentally transported in or on solid wood packaging can be roughly divided into two types- primary (wood infesting) pests, which are already in the bark or wood when it is initially harvested as a tree, and secondary (surface hitchhiking) pests, which attach later onto the surfaces of the packaging.

Primary pests like the Asian long-horned beetle can be well controlled with good consistent adherence to ISPM-15 by all trade partners- but there are some primary pests, and many hitchhiking pests, that I believe currently do not have sufficient policies and regulations in place to prevent them from entering North America. So what worries me is what might fall through the cracks- highly heat resistant pests, hitchhiker pests that contaminate pallets or crates after ISPM-15 treatments are completed, and others.

What would be your takeaway message to the forest products industry and to the wood packaging sector in particular?

The long term viability of solid wood packaging materials in international shipping will depend on outstanding international cooperation in adhering to ISPM-15. It is incredibly important to work with trade organizations and shipping specialists overseas to ensure they know about ISPM-15, why it is important, and how to comply. Solid wood packaging can be just as safe as any other shipping material if it is treated appropriately.

Project to Implement ISPM 15 Programs in Africa

Project to Implement ISPM 15 Programs in Africa

A project lasting approximately 2 1/2 years was concluded in July of 2017 for the evaluation of how the ISPM 15 standard would impact the African countries of Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, and Cameroon. The ISPM 15 standard is one which relates to treating wood packaging material, so that wood boring pests are not transmitted between countries on the wood pallets which products are usually stacked on. The purpose of the long-running study was to evaluate the cost benefits of implementing the standard in those countries, and to determine what the economic, ecological, and logistical impacts would be.

Image supplied by Pixabay; Distributed under CC-BY 2.0 License


It has been found highly desirable to implement the ISPM 15 standard by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), so as to prevent the spread of wood-boring insects during international trade. Several effective methods can be used to implement the standard, which calls for treating the wood so as to ensure that all pests are exterminated prior to sending palletized products across borders.

To accomplish this, three preferred methods have been identified: using methyl bromide gas to kill all pests, dielectric heating, or subjecting the pallets to high-temperature through the use of conventional kilns. Subjecting the pallets to high temperature is the most commonly used method of treating wood pallets. While the objective of implementing ISPM 15 across all trade partners is deemed highly desirable for preventing the spread of pests, it was also necessary to determine the economic impact that implementation would have on several of the more economically depressed African nations.

Objectives of the study

There were several objectives identified for this study from the very outset, and these objectives should help to clarify the difficulty and the impact of implementing the ISPM 15 standard among the participating African nations, as well as others. The goals of the research are to;

  1. Study the effects of ISPM 15 implementation in select African countries.
  2. Identify challenges and recommend policies to assist nations in implementing ISPM 15 programs.
  3. Develop training materials for NPPOs.
  4. Inform non-participating countries on how to effectively implement ISPM 15.

Before the implementation of ISPM15, outbreaks of wood-boring pests like Emerald Ash Borer have threatened North American forests. If pests like this are spread to forests in developing nations, then their access to natural resources potential for economic growth will likely suffer. ISPM 15 was designed to mitigate the spread of wood boring insects and it has been shown to be highly effective when all countries implement it.


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